4.8. ‫Hookها‬

Sometimes it is necessary to perform a specific operation following an event. For these types of needs, we can use Backendpy hooks feature. For example, when we want to write an email management application that sends an email after certain events in other applications, such as the registration or login of users.

With this feature, we can both define new events with special labels within our application as points so that others can write their own code for these events to run, or we can assign codes to execute when triggering other events on the system.

4.8.1. Event Definition

To define event points, we use the execute_event method of the Backendpy class instance inside any space we have access to this instance. (For example, inside the handler of a request, we access the project Backendpy instance via request.app).

Example of defining user creation event:

@routes.post(r'^/users$', data_handler=UserCreationData)
async def user_creation(request):
    ...
    await request.app.execute_event('user_created')
    ...

If the event also contains arguments, we send them in the second parameter in the form of a dictionary:

@routes.post(r'^/users$', data_handler=UserCreationData)
async def user_creation(request):
    ...
    await request.app.execute_event('user_created', {'username': username})
    ...

4.8.1.1. Default Events

In addition to the events that developers can add to the project, the default events are also provided in the framework as follows:

Framework Default Events

Label

Description

startup

After successfully starting the ASGI server

shutdown

After the ASGI server shuts down

request_start

At the start of a request

request_end

After the response to a request is returned

4.8.2. Hook Definition

To define the code that is executed in events, we use the Hooks class and its event decorator:

project/apps/hello/controllers/hooks.py
from backendpy.hook import Hooks
from backendpy.logging import get_logger

LOGGER = get_logger(__name__)
hooks = Hooks()

@hooks.event('startup')
async def example():
    LOGGER.debug("Server starting")

@hooks.event('user_created')
async def example2(username):
    LOGGER.debug(f"User '{username}' creation")

As can be seen, if an argument is sent to a hook, these arguments are received in the parameters of the hook functions, otherwise they have no parameter.

Here we have written the hooks inside a custom module. To connect these hooks to the application, like the other components, we use the main.py module of the application:

project/apps/hello/main.py
from backendpy.app import App
from .controllers.hooks import hooks

app = App(
    ...
    hooks=[hooks],
    ...)

Another way to use hooks is to attach them directly to a project (instead of an application), which can be used for special purposes such as managing database connections, which are part of the project-level settings:

project/main.py
from backendpy import Backendpy

bp = Backendpy()

@bp.event('startup')
async def on_startup():
    LOGGER.debug("Server starting")